Pseuducyst Pancreas Surgery

What is Pseuducyst Pancreas?

Enclosed within a cavity inside the pancreas and surrounded by fibrous tissues is pseudocyst pancreas. A Pseudocyst looks like a cyst but is made up of different kinds of tissues than a true cyst. A true cyst is more likely to be cancerous than a pseudocyst. A pancreatic pseudocyst may occur in someone with chronic pancreatitis. It may also occur after trauma to the abdomen, more often in children.


  • Severe pain in your upper stomach area, with pain radiating to your back
  • Unexplained fainting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting blood
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • High and persistent fever
  • Difficulty eating and digesting food
  • A lump you can feel in the area of your upper stomach
  • Decreased consciousness


  • Surgery under general anesthesia
  • A diet low in carbohydrates and cholesterol and consisting of fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, and lean protein, can lower your triglycerides and help prevent the development of pseudocysts
  • Percutaneous drainage involves either simple percutaneous aspiration or percutaneous catheter placement
  • Endoscopic drainage
  • Laparoscopic surgery- It is recommended by the surgeons because it leaves lesser surgical marks, recovers faster and enables a person to resume his work in a few days.
  • External drainage is indicated for immature cysts with infected contents and for ruptured cysts

Excessive /Morbid Obesity (Bariatric Surgery)

Excessive /Morbid Obesity (Bariatric Surgery)

Bariatric Surgery is a procedure adopted on people who have obesity. By reducing the size of their stomach through various minimally invasive laparoscopic techniques, the surgeons restrict the amount of food stomach can hold. This is done by either removing a part of the stomach or by gastric banding.

Accompanied with weight loss are various other advantages of this surgery such as relief from hypertension, sleep apnoea, diabetes, acid reflux, migraine, asthma, cardiovascular disease, menstrual dysfunction in women, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease etc.

Eligibility- Those who have tried other weight loss plans without long-term success in past and have BMI ≥ 40 or BMI > 35 with significant obesity-related co morbidities are eligible for this surgery.

Advantages of Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery-

  • Rapid recovery
  • Shorter stay at hospital
  • Minimal risks
  • Lesser post-ops
  • Cure of various other weight related problems

Procedures followed-

  • Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy is a surgical process of about 2 to three hours in which the stomach is reduced by 75% of its original size leaving just a narrow ube like space. The process just involved reduction in the size of stomach which limits food intake that can be taken at once. After the first surgery, the patient loses approximated 40-70% of the excess weight.
  • Laparoscopic Gastric bypass- Another Laparoscopic Bariatric surgery is Laparoscopic Gastric bypass which is also called as “Roux-en-Y gastric bypass” (RYGB). In this procedure, the surgeon makes 4-6 small incisions in your abdomen after which the stomach is divided into two parts. The upper part which is also called as the pouch carries the food you eat and is as small as a walnut. This ensures less intake of food and hence helps in weight reduction.
  • Laparoscopic Gastric Banding- One of the least invasive surgical method for weight reduction in which the silicone ring with an expandable balloon is implanted in the center of top part of the stomach. This leaves a small pouch for the food you intake ultimately cutting the consumption of food as compared to earlier circumstances.
  • Mini Gastric Bypass (MGB) – It is a short and reversible weight loss procedure. It only takes 30 minutes for the procedure to complete and requires a shorter stay of a day in the hospital. In this procedure, a laparoscopic stapler is used to divide the stomach in a short tube like structure. The larger part of the stomach is no longer attached to esophagus and hence won’t take any food which becomes the actual reason of weight reduction.

Ovarian Cysts Surgery

What are Ovarian Cysts?

A sac filled with fluid within the ovary is known as Ovarian Cysts. It may or may not cause pain depending on the type of ovarian cyst a woman possesses. Ovarian cyst can arise due to situations such as Endometriosis in which the tissue pieces that surround the womb spread out in fallopian tube, ovaries, bladder etc. Sometimes the blood-filled cysts get formed in these tissues. PCOS is also a condition due to which several cysts grow on ovaries.


  • Abdominal pain
  • Uterus bleeding
  • Weight gain
  • Nausea
  • Difficulty with bowel movements
  • Fatigue and headache
  • Swelling and bloating
  • Change in frequency of urination

Surgery may be advised when-

  • Cysts are present in both the ovaries
  • Cyst is larger than 3 inches
  • Ovarian growth in younger girls not having menstrual periods and women with menopause
  • There are chances of ovarian cancer


Laparoscopic surgery for Ovarian Cysts- It is a minimally invasive procedure through which the patient can avoid large and open incisions. Faster recovery, same day discharge and minimal pain are some of the other advantages which make it better than conventional method of open surgery. In this surgery, small incisions are made in the belly through which the equipments such as a camera and laparoscope are inserted inside with which the cysts are treated.

Laparoscopic Uterus Removal Surgery (TLH)

Removal of uterus or Hysterectomy can be undertaken if one has excessively heavy periods, non- cancerous tumors or a dropped uterus. Cancer in the reproductive organs like cervix, uterus, vagina, fallopian tube etc could also be the reasons which would require surgical emergency.

A partial hysterectomy involves surgical removal of uterus alone whereas removal of only non-cancerous tumors is called myomectomy. Removal of cervix as well as uterus is total hysterectomy.

Laparoscopic uterus removal surgery or Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy (TLH)-

Patients with abnormal uterine bleeding or flabroids can have the surgery. The surgery is far less invasive than total abdominal hysterectomy. This minimally invasive procedure secures the ovarian and uterine vasculature via laparoscopy; the remaining procedure is completed vaginally. It only requires small incisions which quickly recover leaving very few wounds behind.


  • Reduced short-term morbidity
  • Shorter hospital stay
  • Faster resumption of normal activities when compared with abdominal hysterectomy
  • Less blood loss
  • Minimal wound infections
  • Less post-operative pain

Varicose Veins Surgery

When the veins become overfilled, dilated and enlarged with blood, then it is called as Varicose Veins. These veins look swollen and usually look bluish-purple or red in color. It is a commonly found situation, particularly in women. They generally appear in the lower legs. The common causes of this condition are pregnancy, menopause, standing for a long time, pressure on abdomen, chronic heart valve conditions, obesity etc.


  • Highly visible veins
  • Pain
  • Swelling/ inflammation by the veins
  • Heaviness
  • Pain in the legs
  • Discoloration
  • Ulcers around ankles
  • Ageing
  • Abdominal straining

In Medical Science we have the following cures and surgeries for this disease; which are as follows:-

  • a) Radiofrequency Ablation-It is a minimally invasive technique in which the doctor closes the vein with the help of scar tissue that is formed by damaging the tissue with heat. Instead of laser, this technique uses radiofrequency energy. This energy is inserted through a thin tube called catheter through a small incision in the vein. This technique allows you to walk after the treatment and the surgical marks are also minimal. It also ensures faster recovery and quick release from the hospital.Advantages
    • Minimal bruising
    • Fast and safe procedure
    • Little to no pain
    • Minimally invasive
    • Resume normal activities in 24 hours
  • b) Stripping-Varicose veins stripping is a procedure in which the damaged vein is pulled out from under the skin using small incisions. This procedure should not be done on older people, pregnant women, people with abnormal passage way between artery and vein in the leg, people with swelling and fluid due to blockage in the lymph vessels, people who have poor circulation in the arteries of legs and also people with skin infections and blood-clotting defects.Who should get Varicose Stripping done?
    • Constant pain, throbbing, and tenderness in the legs
    • Skin sores and ulcers
    • Blood clots
    • Bleeding from the veins
  • c) Chemoembolization-A minimally invasive procedure used when the tumor is too large to be treated with Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or the tumor is in a location that cannot be treated with RFA. It is mostly used to treat the cancer of liver by injecting anti-cancer drugs into the blood vessel feeding a cancerous tumor. It ensures recovery in very less time.Advantages-
    • Milder side effects
    • Treats all tumors, including undetected tumors
    • Can be repeated
    • Promising results
    • Recovery in short time

Liver Cysts

What are liver cysts?

Occurring in almost 5% of the population, Liver cysts or hepatic cysts are fluid-filled thin walled structures. Liver cysts fall into several categories with varying causes, diagnoses, and treatments.

Simple cysts- Malformation of bile duct cells during the embryo’s development is its main cause. It is usually present from birth. They are the most common type of liver cyst and generally measure less than 3 cm in diameter.

Echinococcosis- It is a transmissible infection between animals and humans caused by a species of tapeworm. Found in the faeces of the animal host (e.g. sheep and dogs), humans become infected by ingesting the parasite’s eggs.

Cystadenoma and Cystadenocarcinoma- Having mean diameter of 12 cm, these represent benign and cancerous cystic tumors, respectively.

Polycystic liver disease (PLD) – It is a genetic disorder that is present from birth in which smaller cysts cluster together to form a single cyst greater than 20 liver cysts.

Some of the causes of the formations of liver cysts are infections by parasites, bile duct malformation since birth, genetic disorders, and sometimes those present since birth cluster together, they give rise to bigger cysts formations.


  • Bloating
  • Feeling of fullness
  • Sudden pain in the upper right abdominal region
  • Fever
  • Bloody sputum
  • Severe skin itching
  • Severe right upper quadrant and shoulder pain


  • De-roofing or cyst fenestration- It is done in the case of large cysts where walls of the cysts are removed.
  • Liver transplantation
  • Liver resection- Depending on the area covered by cysts, the doctors surgically remove that part of the liver.
  • Cyst aspiration- This is done in the case when cyst blocks the bile duct. A needle is used to drain the fluid in the cyst.



Appendix is a 3.5-inch-long tube of tissue that stretches out of the large intestine. When this appendix has an inflammation then it is called as Appendicitis. It calls for prompt medical attention as soon as it is detected. If ignored, an inflamed appendix can become life threatening as it can burst and spill infectious materials into the abdominal cavity. It can be caused by-

  • A stomach infection that has reached the appendix
  • Infection caused by the bacteria due to the hard stool that got stuck in the appendix


  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Worsening lower right side abdominal pain
  • Painful sneezing or coughing
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Pain around navel


When an inflamed and swollen appendix is surgically removed, then the procedure is called as Appendectomy. Appendix requires immediate treatment as it can also become life-threatening- it occasionally bursts within a day of symptoms showcase.

The surgeons perform two kinds of surgeries for the same-

Open Appendectomy- The traditional way of removing the infected appendix from large intestine. After the incision is made, the infected appendix is located and then cut from the large intestine and removed from the body post which the incision is sewed with stitches.

Laparoscopic Appendectomy- A minimally invasive technique in which several small incisions are made in the abdomen through which the camera and other surgical instruments are inserted so that the surgeon can view the area on a computer screen. The doctor then performs the surgery based on the video. Laparoscopic Appendectomy has several benefits over open appendectomy as it helps in faster recovery and allows the patient to leave the hospital on the same day. Moreover, he can also resume his normal day-to-day activities in a very short time.

Gall Bladder Stone

What are Gall Stones?

The stones that develop in the gallbladder or bile ducts are gallstones. These stones can range from microscopic to more than an inch in size. When cholesterol levels in the bile are too high, then that excess cholesterol turns into what is called as gallstone. They are usually green or yellow in color. Another type of gallstone is pigment stones, which are mostly made up of bilirubin and are smaller and darker. Cirrhosis (a liver disease) or blood diseases such as sickle cell anemia, triglycerides (a type of blood fat), fasting, obesity, genes and diet can be some of the reasons of gall bladder stones.

Your doctor may recommend surgery if:

  • You have repeated gallstone attacks
  • The pain from the attacks is severe
  • In case of inflammation of the gallbladder or the pancreas
  • You have an impaired immune system


  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever or chills
  • Constipation
  • Jaundice
  • Chest pains
  • Heartburn, indigestion, and excessive gas
  • Stools of an unusual color (often lighter, like clay
  • Pain in the upper abdominal area, either in the upper right or middle
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Pain that worsens after eating a meal, particularly fatty or greasy foods
  • Headache over eyes, especially right


  • Minimally invasive (laparoscopic) surgery or Cholecystectomy requires only 3-4 small incisions in the abdomen instead of five to seven inch incisions. If there are significant symptoms of gallstones, then laparoscopic surgery is the best cure for it. First, general anesthesia is given to the patient post which small incisions are made to insert a few instruments with which the gallbladder is removed. It has various advantages over other methods such as minimal post-operative pain, faster recovery, same day return to home etc.
  • Traditional or open surgery which takes few days to recover
  • Medicines

Consequences of untreated gallstones

  • Jaundice
  • Pancreatitis which is inflammation of the pancreas
  • Empyema which is pus in the gallbladder
  • Gallstone Ileus is the condition that arises when a gallstone blocks the intestine.
  • Perforated Gallbladder is a life- threatening condition and is most common in people with diabetes
  • Gangrene or Abscesses
  • Fistula
  • Infection in the Common Bile Duct (Cholangitis)
  • Gallbladder Cancer

Hernia Surgery

What is Hernia?

Hernia is a bulge or swelling in the abdomen, specifically the groin due to forceful push of some contents such as fat or bowel in your abdominal wall muscle. An amalgamation of pressure and weakness of muscle or fascia pushes the tissue through the opening and thereby gives rise to hernia. Such muscle weakness may be present at birth or occur later in life. Anything that causes an increase in pressure in the abdomen can cause a hernia, including:

  • Lifting heavy objects
  • Relentless coughing or sneezing
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Poor nutrition, over exertion, obesity and smoking can also cause hernia.

Types of Hernia

  • Hiatal (upper stomach)
  • Femoral (outer groin)
  • Inguinal (inner groin)
  • Umbilical (belly button)
  • Incisional (resulting from an incision)


  • Swelling beneath the skin of the abdomen or the groin; it may disappear when you lie down
  • A heavy feeling in the abdomen grouped by constipation or blood in the stool
  • Discomfort in the abdomen or groin when lifting or bending over
  • Weakness, pressure, burning, or pain in the abdomen, groin , or scrotum
  • Pain when straining, lifting, or coughing
  • The feeling that something has ruptured
  • Unable to have bowel movement
  • Nauseated


  • Laparoscopic hernia surgery in which two to four small incisions are made in the abdominal wall through which laparoscope and other surgical instruments are inserted in the abdomen to treat the hernia. Most hernias can be cured by laparoscopic surgery including Inguinal, Para-umbilical, Umbilical and Incisional. It is also preferred in bilateral inguinal hernia as both the sides are operated by similar incisions and in recurrent hernia after open surgery. It is definitely much better than open surgery because it is time effective, does not demand longer hospital stays and has lesser post-ops.
  • Medication such as antacids, H-2 receptor blockers, and proton pump inhibitors. Although, it may vary according to different hernia types.
  • Open surgery in which a long incision is made and then the hernia is pushed inside, tied down or even removed depending on the patient.
  • Avoiding heavy meals and not lying after a meal are some ways with which it can be cured, if it is detected at an early stage.
  • Losing weight and giving up cigarettes